Frontal Lobe Functions

December 12, 2018


  • Behaviour
  • Motivation
  • Impulse control
  • Speech
  • Emotion
  • Executive function (planning, organising, judgement, reasoning, problem solving)

Narcissistic personality disorder features

July 9, 2016


  • Special treatment expected (grandiose), feelings of entitlement
  • Power, success and high intelligence (fantasises over)
  • Envious of others and beliefs others are equally jealous of them
  • Conceited (vain)
  • Interpersonal exploitation – exploits others to achieve personal gain
  • Admiration of others needed
  • Lacking empathy

Dependent personality disorder features

July 8, 2016


  • Relies on others to make important decisions (needing reassurance)
  • Encourages others to make decisions
  • Limited capacity themselves to make decisions (about life responsibilities)
  • Inability to care for oneself (fears of such) so are uncomfortable alone
  • Abandonment fears of caring for oneself
  • Needs of others put first and unduly compliant with others’ requests
  • Tolerance – inability to disagree with others

Anxious (avoidant) personality disorder features

July 7, 2016


  • Avoidance of social interaction – fear of criticism/rejection
  • Need for physical security which places restrictions in life
  • Insecure – belief that one is socially inept/unappealing
  • Ostracised, worried about
  • Unwilling to be involved unless certain of being liked
  • Socially inept (beliefs of such)

Dissocial (antisocial) personality disorder features

July 7, 2016


  • Callous unconcern for the feelings of other
  • Obligations (social) and rules ignored
  • Remorse lacking (no empathy)
  • Relationships unable to be maintained (although can often be started)
  • Underhanded – deceitful, lying and manipulative although can have superficial charm
  • Punishment does not yield benefit – unable to profit from punishment
  • Temper – low tolerance to frustration and low threshold for anger
  • Blames others or attempts to offer rational explanations for behaviour

Obsessive-compulsive disorder diagnosis

January 8, 2016

TORE (for obsessional symptoms)

  • Thought or act resisted unsuccessfully
  • Own thoughts in the patient’s mind (i.e. not psychotic)
  • Repetitive and unpleasant obsessions (thoughts, images or impulses)
  • Ego-dystonic – the patient does not enjoy these thoughts and finds them distressing

ICD-10 criteria. Obsessional symptoms or compulsive acts (or both) present on most days of the week for longer than 2 weeks. There needs to be associated distress or interference with activities as a result.

Phencyclidine effects

October 26, 2015


  • Rage
  • Erythema
  • Dilated pupils
  • Delusions
  • Amnesia
  • Nystagmus
  • Excitation
  • Skin dryness

Medications known to cause swallowing problems

August 13, 2015

Benzos Make Hard Pharynges

  • Benzodiazepines esp. clonazepam
  • Metoclopramide
  • Haloperidol
  • Phenothiazines

Phobia symptoms

July 13, 2015


  • Fear of a specific object or situation
  • Evasion of said fear
  • Anticipation anxiety e.g. if knows will be exposed to phobia
  • Restlessness and anxiety when exposed

Drugs that can contribute to deliruim

July 12, 2015

Some Treatment Hinder Older Patient’s Brains

  • Steroids
  • Tricyclics and other anticholinergics
  • H2 blockers e.g. cimetidine, ranitidine
  • Opiates
  • Parkinson’s drugs
  • Benzodiazepines