Archive for the ‘Basic Psychology’ Category

Dialectic Behavioural Therapy techniques

July 7, 2015


  • Distress tolerance – learning how to manage distress e.g distractions
  • Interpersonal effectiveness training – problem-solving
  • Core mindfulness training – monitor current mental state
  • Emotional regulation skills

DBT can be used for reducing self-harm behaviours in patients with borderline personality disorder.


Primary emotions

July 3, 2015

Happy Sad FADS

  • Happiness
  • Sadness
  • Fear
  • Anger
  • Disgust
  • Surprise

Image source here

Paul Ekman (1972)

Kleinian defences

July 2, 2015


  • Splitting
  • Introjection
  • Projective identification
  • Denial
  • Omnipotence
  • Grandiosity

Stages of change model

July 1, 2015


  • Pre-contemplation – does not want to change
  • Contemplation – ambivalent and ‘sitting on the fence’ about change
  • Preparation – had some experience in change and ‘testing the waters’
  • Action – introducing change
  • Maintenance – continuing with the change

Prochaska and DiClemente’s model – intentional behavioural change. Often associated with addictions.

Pre-contemplation can be divided up further:

Rel Reb Res Rat

  • Reluctant – insufficient knowledge about problem
  • Rebellious – afraid of losing control over life
  • Resigned – hopeless about change
  • Rationalising – think they do not have a problem

Memory (stages of processing)

August 29, 2014

ESR (as in the blood test)

  • Encoding (registration) – information placed into memory
  • Storage (retention) – short term memory (7+-2) and working memory*
  • Retrieval (recollection) – recall information from memory. People remember first and last info best,  primacy and recency effects

*Working memory – manipulation of information and includes the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad 

Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development

July 28, 2014

  • Bun (Trust vs. Mistrust) a “rust” colored bun
  • Shoe (Autonomy vs. Shame) an “auto” shoved inside of a shoe. The auto is driven by “shane”
  • Tree (Initiative vs. Guilt) Shia Leboef, or an Inn are sitting in a tree, which is wrapped with a quilt
  • Dinosaur (Industry vs. Inferiority) picture a dinosaur with dust (in”dust”try) sprinkled all over it. The dinosaur feels inferior because of the dust all over it.
  • Sky dive (Identity vs. Role Confusion) a skydiver’s chute doesn’t open and he falls on top of a car denting it. He is also very confused after hitting the car.
  • Sticks (Intimacy vs. Isolation) picture two sticks in love and one stick all by himself.
  • Heaven (Generativity vs. Stagnation) picture a generator up in heaven that died because it ran out of gas and a male deer (stag) pulling the cord to try to get it started again.
  • Plate (Integrity vs. Despair) picture grits and a pear on a plate.

Source here

Motivational Interviewing

July 26, 2014

The main four principles:


  • Develop discrepancy -help client see discrepancy between current situation and future goals
  • Roll with resistance – be impartial and avoid conflict
  • Express empathy – see things from client’s perspective
  • Support Self-efficacy – positivity, recognising previous achievements and strengths


Statements by the client which reveals consideration or motivation to change


  • Desire to change
  • Ability – recognising they can change
  • Reason – recognising why he needs to change
  • Need – realising the need to change
  • Commitment to change
  • Activation – client’s willingness to change
  • Taking steps towards changing

More information here

Personality Traits

July 25, 2014


Personality can be devided into five categories:

  • Openness to experiences
  • Consciontiousness
  • Extraversion (aka surgency)
  • Agreeableness
  • Neuroticism (aka emotional instability)

Freud’s stages of psychosexual development

March 27, 2014

Old Age Psychiatrists Love Geriatrics


Old Age Pensioners Love Grapes

  • Oral
  • Anal
  • Phallic
  • Latent
  • Genital