Archive for the ‘Organic Disorders’ Category

Lewy body dementia features

April 9, 2015

SHACK

  • Stiffness, rigidity and movement difficulties e.g. in bed
  • Hallucinations – visual or auditory
  • Antipsychotic sensitivity e.g. to sedation and EPSE
  • Cognitive impairment which fluctuates (think delirium-like picture)
  • Klumsiness – falls

VIP

  • Visual hallucinations
  • Inattention, fluctuating course
  • Parkinsonism

Kluver-Bucy syndrome

March 18, 2015

Damage to bilateral medial temporal lobes (amygdala and hippocampus)

Oral Sex DVD

  • hyperOrality
  • hyperSexuality
  • Docility
  • Visual agnosia
  • Dietary changes – hyperphagia, carbohydrate craving

Narcolepsy features

March 13, 2015

Sleepy People Can Have Hallucinations

  • Sleepiness (excessive during the day)
  • Paralysis (sleep)
  • Cataplexy
  • Hypnagogic Hallucinations

sleep hallucinations

Extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE)

February 10, 2015

ADAPT

  • Acute Dystonia
  • Akathisia
  • Parkinsonism
  • Tardive dyskinesia

Balint syndrome features

January 1, 2015

Damage to bilateral parietooccipital lobes

SOOT

  • Simulatnagnosia – inability to simultaneously perceive different aspects of a picture to appreciate it as a whole
  • Ocular apraxia – difficulty keeping the eyes still
  • Optic ataxia – difficulty moving the eyes to a specific position
  • Tunnel vision

Simultaneous Operatic Occupation

  • Simulatnagnosia
  • Optic ataxia
  • Oculomotor apraxia

Gerstmann’s Syndrome features

December 31, 2014

Damage to the inferior parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere

RAAF

  • Right-left confusion
  • Agraphia/dysgraphia – difficulty writing
  • Acalculia/dyscalculia – difficulty comprehending mathematics
  • Finger agnosia – difficulty identifying fingers on one’s hand

raf

Source here

Non-dominant parietal lobe dysfunction (DISC Face):

  • Dressing apraxia (difficulty planning to get dressed)
  • Insight-lacking into illness (Anosagnosia)
  • Spatial neglect (e.g. neglecting one side of the body)
  • Constructional apraxia (unable to copy pictures or combine parts into a whole)
  • Face – prosopagnosia (unable to recognise faces)

Subcortical dementia features

November 25, 2014

LAPSED

  • Language sparing/preservation
  • Anamnesis (memory retrieval) impaired
  • Personality change
  • Slowing of psychomotor activities
  • Executive dysfunction
  • Depression

Delirium causes

September 3, 2014

PINCH ME

  • Pain
  • INfection
  • Constipation
  • Hydration
  • Medication
  • Electrolyte imbalance e.g. low calcium / Environment

I WATCH DEATH

  • Infection – UTI, pneumonia, encephalitis, meningitis
  • Withdrawal – alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbituates
  • Acute metabolic disorder – derranged electrolytes, hepatic, renal failure
  • Trauma – head injury, post-op
  • CNS pathology – stroke, haemorrhage, tumour, seizure
  • Hypoxia – anaemia, cardiac failure, PE
  • Deficiency – vitamin B12, folate, thiamine (B1)
  • Endocrine disorder – thyroid, glucose, parathyroid, adrenal
  • Acute vascular – shock, vasculitis
  • Toxins, substance abuse
  • Heavy metals – mercury, lead

why so delirius

Dementia reversible causes

September 1, 2014

DEMENTIA

  • Drugs and alcohol esp. anticholinergics
  • Emotions e.g. depression
  • Metabolic derangement e.g. hypothyroid, electrolyte abnormalities
  • Eyes and ears in decline
  • Normal pressure hydrocephalus
  • Tumor
  • Infection e.g. encephalitis, HIV, syphilis
  • Anaemia e.g. vit B12, folate deficiency

Parkinson’s disease features

August 28, 2014

TRAP

  • Tremor – usually hands (pill-rolling, 3-6Hz), present at rest, worsened by anxiety, improves on action
  • Rigidity – lead-pipe rigidity. Cogwheeling = tremor + rigidity
  • Akinesia – reduced facial expression, monotonous speech, abnormal gait/stance, ‘slowed down’
  • Postural instability