Archive for the ‘Pharmacology’ Category

Phencyclidine effects

October 26, 2015

RED DANES

  • Rage
  • Erythema
  • Dilated pupils
  • Delusions
  • Amnesia
  • Nystagmus
  • Excitation
  • Skin dryness

Medications known to cause swallowing problems

August 13, 2015

Benzos Make Hard Pharynges

  • Benzodiazepines esp. clonazepam
  • Metoclopramide
  • Haloperidol
  • Phenothiazines

Drugs that can contribute to deliruim

July 12, 2015

Some Treatment Hinder Older Patient’s Brains

  • Steroids
  • Tricyclics and other anticholinergics
  • H2 blockers e.g. cimetidine, ranitidine
  • Opiates
  • Parkinson’s drugs
  • Benzodiazepines

Hyperprolactinaemia – risks and drugs

May 9, 2015

RAT BOY

  • Risperidone
  • Amisulpride
  • Typical antipsychotics (all)
  • Breast-cancer history (hormone dependent)
  • Osteoporotic patients
  • Young age

RAT Рworst offenders for hyperprolactinaemia, BOY Рavoid those in these particular patients

According to Maudsley guidelines 12th edition

Sedatives in liver impairment

May 5, 2015

Zonked Livers Take Oxazepam

  • Zopiclone
  • Lorazepam
  • Temazepam
  • Oxazepam

Or you can use LOTZ

Recommended by Maudsley Guidelines

Valproate side effects

May 4, 2015

VALPROATE

  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Appetite increase, so weight gain
  • Lethargy / Liver failure (monitor LFTs during 1st 6 months)
  • Pancreatitis
  • Reversible hair loss (grows back curly, apparently)
  • Oedema
  • Ataxia
  • Teratogenicity, Tremor, Thrombocytopaenia
  • Encephalopathy (due to hyperammonaemia) / Enzyme inducer

Main effects: Valproate Take Lots Of Hair AWay

  • Vomiting and nausea (also any kind of gastric disturbance e.g. diarrhoea)
  • Thrombocytopaenia / Tremor
  • Lethargy
  • Oedema
  • Hair loss / Hyperammonaemia (confusion)
  • Appetite increased / Weight gain

Lithium side effects

April 21, 2015

LITHIUM

  • Lethargy / Leukocytosis
  • Intension (or fine) tremor
  • Teratogenic
  • Hypothyroidism – need to check TFTs
  • Insipidus (diabetes) – need to check U&Es
  • Urinary frequency/excess
  • Metallic taste

Source here

Clozapine side-effects (common)

March 25, 2015

Some Say Clozapine Has Too Many Nasty Adverse Effects

  • Sedation
  • Seizures
  • Constipation
  • Hypotension/Hypertension/Hypersalivation (sialorrhoea in 30%)
  • Tachycardia
  • Mass increase (weight gain)
  • Nausea
  • Agranulocytosis
  • Enuresis (nocturnal)

Carbamazepine side effects

September 1, 2014

HARD SAND

  • Headache
  • Ataxia
  • Rash – itchy, erythematous in 1/10 patients
  • Dizziness
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Anaemia (aplastic), agaranulocytosis
  • Nausea
  • Diplopia

Clozapine – receptors affected by it

August 31, 2014

Clozapine Has Such Affinity for Dopamine

  • Cholinergic
  • Histaminergic
  • Serotonergic
  • Adrenergic
  • Dopaminergic

Greater affinity to D4 than D2 receptors. D4 receptors are highest in the frontal cortex and amygdala and low in the basal ganglia. D2 receptors are higher in the basal ganglia so this may explain why there are reduced extra-pyramidal side effects (EPSE) with clozapine compared to other atypical antipsychotics.