Archive for the ‘Schizophrenia’ Category

Bleuler’s four A’s of schizophrenia

June 25, 2015

Am Aff Au Ass

  • Ambivalence
  • Affect disturbed
  • Autism
  • Association, loosening of

Schizophrenia types

May 27, 2012

Crazy People Hear Something

  • Catatonic – unresponsive, fixed stupor
  • Paranoid – often delusional, angry, jealous
  • Hebephrenic – disintegration of personality, erratic speach
  • Simple – disintegration of thinking process

Schizophrenia – Schneider’s first rank symptoms

January 2, 2012


  • Broadcasting, insertion and withdrawal of thought
  • Auditory hallucinations
    • Thought echo – thoughts spoken aloud (echo de la pensee)
    • 3rd person arguing – 2 or more voices arguing about the patient: “He’s a bad man.” “No, he’s good!”
    • Commentary – “he is folding his arms now”
  • Delusional perception (i.e. taking a normal sensory perception to mean a bizarre situation such as taking seeing an aeroplane as indicating that the president has been shot)
  • Somatic passivity / delusions of control
  • Made:
    • Volition – someone controlling the action, usually completed act
    • Impulses – someone controlling the desire to act
    • Affect – someone controlling mood/affect

Schizophrenia symptoms

January 2, 2012

Positive symptoms


  • Thinking disturbed, neologisms
  • Hallucinations, typically auditory
  • Reduced contact with reality
  • Emotional control affected – incongruous affect
  • Arousal may lead to worsening of symptoms

Negative symptoms


  • Loss of volition, under-activity, social withdrawal
  • Emotionally flat
  • Speech reduced, monosyllabic
  • Slowness in movement and thought, psychomotor retardation


Schizophrenia negative symptoms

March 21, 2011

The six A‘s

  • Affective flattening – unchanging facial expression, reduced movement, poor eye contact
  • Alogia – poverty of speech, thought block, delayed response
  • Anergia – loss of energy
  • Anhedonia – loss of interest in things/sex/relationships
  • Apathy – poor hygiene, lack of interest
  • Asociality – not engaging with peers, little interest in sex

Amisulpride – best evidence for treatment (handily begins with A also).